Not too long ago the literature of organizations consisted largely of Mirrors for princes and principles of organizations; these were didactic statements which hold on certain situations and aspects of control and behavior, but in a broader sense, the term is also used to cover histories or work aimed at creating patterns for imitation or avoidance.

Today this is no longer the case; knowledge of organizations is incomplete, and perhaps the best we can do at preset is to use it to guide our inquiries about answers rather than as a precise tool to develop them.

On the surface, this shift from positive statements to qualified less precise ones might seem to be a regression, a loss of position.

Actually, it amounts to an enormous step forward. Faith in the existence of a final and ultimate answer has been replaced by a more mature and sophisticate understanding of the factors involved in organizations.

Goal function

Determine the relative success or failure of the organization.

If it wins at StarCraft: Brood War, with a system that extract value from information models design for online competition, is a success; if not, it is to that degree unsuccessful.

Goals function as starting point analysis leading to a hierarchy of objectives and to a definition of nodes and units.

System approach

This approach does not give prime attention to organizational objectives but to those attributes relevant to any goal.

The systems model consider the organization as receiving inputs from the environment and delivering outputs to it.

Undecidable decisions

Information models are used in two ways; one are schemes with central focus goals, deterministic objectives.

The other schemata is the result of system models that focus on organization general properties and processes.