Cognitive framework

Organization refers to the tendency of all species to systematize or organize their processes into coherent systems which may be either physical or psychological. Adaptation is the balance between the independent processes of assimilation and accomodation.

Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that humans cannot be given information, in which they immediately understand and use. Instead, learners must construct their own knowledge. They build their knowledge through experience. Experiences enable them to create mental models of the world. These models are changed, enlarged, and made more sophisticated through two complimentary processes: assimilation and accommodation.

Definition of intelligence

Piaget's definition of intelligence itself does not consist of an isolated cognitive process. It is not, one form of structure among others; it is the form of equilibrium towards which all the structures or cognitive processes tend.

Intelligence is only a generic term to indicate the equilibrium of cognitive processes.

He believed, human beings inherit a tendency to organize their intellectual processes and to develop particular adaptations to their environment.

Intellectual adaptation is also an exchange between a person and its environment and involves the same two processes of assimilation and accommodation found in biology.

Assimilation involves the person dealing with the environment in terms of its structures, while accommodation involves the transformation of its structures in response to the environment.

The particular ways in which an organism adapts and organize its processes depend also on its environment and learning history.

Cognitive constructivism

Cognitive constructivism is based on two different senses of construction. First, on the idea that people learn by actively constructing new knowledge, not by having information poured into their heads. Moreover, constructivism asserts that people learn with particular effectiveness when they are engaged in constructing personally meaningful artifacts (e.g. computer programs, animations).

View of learning

Because knowledge is actively constructed, learning is presented as a process of active discovery. The role of the instructor is not to drill knowledge into students through consistent repetition, or to goad them into learning through carefully employed rewards and punishments. Rather, the role of the teacher is to facilitate discovery by providing the necessary resources and by guiding learners as they attempt to assimilate new knowledge to old and to modify the old to accommodate the new.